See V. Vasallos and S. Venkatasubramanian, 1995, Technology transfer in the software industry: the case of AI, Stanford Computer Industry Project, unpublished working paper, for a current bibliography and a case study of software technology transfer; and Edward A. Feigenbaum, Tiger in a cage, Address to the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Conference, 1993, for an informed opinion about expert systems technology, specifically.
 As early as the Machines That Think cover article, Newsweek, June 30, 1980.
 As Michael Schrage points out, this is more an organizational principle for software design than an actual technology per se. Senile dementia for artificial intelligentsia? Computerworld, May 9, 1994, 28:19, p39.
 Prospector, Dipmeter Advisor and XCON are all examples of first generation expert systems, built with high-priced knowledge engineers on expensive Lisp machines, to emulate expert human problem solvers in critical industrial situations.
 Nathan Rosenberg, Exploring the Black Box. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
 Paul Harmon, ed. "The size of the commercial AI market in the US." Intelligent Software Strategies, 10:1, January 1994.
 John Tucker, Critical Technology Assessment of the US Artificial Intelligence Sector, US Department of Commerce, August 1994.
 See T. Acorn and S. Walden (1992). SMART: Support Management Automated Reasoning Technology for Compaq Customer Service. Proceedings of the IAAI '92 Conference.
 Most of these systems use a related AI technology called cased-based retrieval. See Avron Barr, Active Information Systems, which appeared as the "Out of the Lab" column in IEEE Expert, July 1993.
 Jesse Berst, 1994. How dumb is your software?, Windows Sources, 2:8, p.65.
 Avron Barr, IS 2000: A New Role for Corporate IS Departments and People, Software Development Conference, San Jose, 1993.
 See Thomas Stewart. Your Company's Most Valuable Asset: Intellectual Capital. Fortune, October 3, 1994. Karl Wiig, (1994). Knowledge Management: The Central Management Focus for Intelligent-Acting Organizations. Schema Press. Arlington Texas. Also, Jeff Wilkins, Understanding Knowledge Assets: Towards a New Framework. unpublished working paper, Stanford University, August 1994, presents an interesting discussion of the evaluation of knowledge assets.