[1] See for example Michael Schrage, Senile dementia for artificial intelligentsia? Computerworld, May 9, 1994, 28:19, p39, and Robin Bloor, New intelligence: expert systems are reemerging to satisfy broader needs than their predecessors. DBMS, Dec. 1993, 6:13, p12.

[2] See V. Vasallos and S. Venkatasubramanian, 1995, Technology transfer in the software industry: the case of AI, Stanford Computer Industry Project, unpublished working paper, for a current bibliography and a case study of software technology transfer; and Edward A. Feigenbaum, Tiger in a cage, Address to the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Conference, 1993, for an informed opinion about expert systems technology, specifically.

[3] As early as the Machines That Think cover article, Newsweek, June 30, 1980.

[4] As Michael Schrage points out, this is more an organizational principle for software design than an actual technology per se. Senile dementia for artificial intelligentsia? Computerworld, May 9, 1994, 28:19, p39.

[5] Prospector, Dipmeter Advisor and XCON are all examples of first generation expert systems, built with high-priced knowledge engineers on expensive Lisp machines, to emulate expert human problem solvers in critical industrial situations.

[6] Nathan Rosenberg, Exploring the Black Box. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

[7] Paul Harmon, ed. "The size of the commercial AI market in the US." Intelligent Software Strategies, 10:1, January 1994.

[8] John Tucker, Critical Technology Assessment of the US Artificial Intelligence Sector, US Department of Commerce, August 1994.

[9] See T. Acorn and S. Walden (1992). SMART: Support Management Automated Reasoning Technology for Compaq Customer Service. Proceedings of the IAAI '92 Conference.

[10] Most of these systems use a related AI technology called cased-based retrieval. See Avron Barr, Active Information Systems, which appeared as the "Out of the Lab" column in IEEE Expert, July 1993.

[11] Jesse Berst, 1994. How dumb is your software?, Windows Sources, 2:8, p.65.

[12] Avron Barr, IS 2000: A New Role for Corporate IS Departments and People, Software Development Conference, San Jose, 1993.

[13] See Thomas Stewart. Your Company's Most Valuable Asset: Intellectual Capital. Fortune, October 3, 1994. Karl Wiig, (1994). Knowledge Management: The Central Management Focus for Intelligent-Acting Organizations. Schema Press. Arlington Texas. Also, Jeff Wilkins, Understanding Knowledge Assets: Towards a New Framework. unpublished working paper, Stanford University, August 1994, presents an interesting discussion of the evaluation of knowledge assets.